Difference between revisions of "Help:Editing"

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{{h:h|editor toc}}
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<!-- This is not the place to practice editing pages, to do so, please use the [[Wikipedia:Sandbox]] -->
==General==
+
<noinclude>{{semiprotected|small=yes}}</noinclude>
To edit a [[MediaWiki]] page, click on the "'''Edit this page'''" (or just "'''edit'''") link at one of its edges. This will bring you to a page with a text box containing the ''[[wikitext]]'': the editable source code from which the server produces the webpage.
+
{{shortcut|WP:H2EAP|WP:HEP|WP:HOW|WP:EDIT}}
 +
{{See also|Wikipedia:Introduction|Wikipedia:Manual of Style|Wikipedia:Tutorial|Help:Editing|Wikipedia:Your first article}}
  
The edit link of a page showing an old version leads to an edit page with the old wikitext. This allows [[Help:Reverting a page to an earlier version|restoring the old version]]. However, the edit link of a [[diff]] page gives the current wikitext, even if the diff page shows an old version below the table of differences.  
+
[[Wikipedia]] is a [[wiki]], meaning that anyone can easily edit any [[Wikipedia:Protection policy|unprotected page]], and save those changes immediately to that page, making the alterations visible to every other reader. You do not even need to register to do this. After your first edit, you will be a [[Wikipedia: Wikipedian|Wikipedia editor]]! <!-- Comment Good luck with your first edit. -->
  
After adding to or changing the wikitext it is useful to press "Show preview", which produces the corresponding webpage in your browser but does not make it publicly available yet (not until you press "Save"). Errors in formatting, links, tables, etc., are often much easier to discover from the rendered page than from the raw wikitext.  
+
<div class="messagebox" style="float: right; width: 150px; margin-left: 10px;">Note: You can use the [[Wikipedia:Sandbox|sandbox]] to experiment with page editing.</div>
  
If you are not satisfied you can make more changes and preview the page as many times as necessary. Then write a short [[Help:Edit summary|edit summary]] in the small text field below the edit-box and when finished press "Save". Depending on your system, pressing the "Enter" key while the edit box is not active (i.e., there is no typing cursor in it) may have the same effect as pressing "Save".  
+
===Introduction===
 +
Editing most Wikipedia pages is easy. Simply click on the "'''edit this page'''" tab at the top of a Wikipedia page (or on a [[Wikipedia: Section|section-edit link]]). This will bring you to a new page with a text box containing the editable text of the original page.  If you add information to a page, [[Wikipedia:Citing sources|please provide references]], as [[Wikipedia:Verifiability|unreferenced facts are subject to removal]]. When you are finished with an edit, you should write a short [[Help:Edit summary|edit summary]] in the small field below the edit-box. You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in the [[Wikipedia:Edit_summary_legend|legend]]. To see how the page looks with your edits, press the "'''Show preview'''" button. To see the differences between the page with your edits and the previous version of the page, press the "'''Show changes'''" button. If you're satisfied with what you see, [[Wikipedia:Be bold|be bold]] and press the "'''Save page'''" button. Your changes will immediately be visible to all Wikipedia users.
 +
[[Image:Edit commands.PNG|frame|left|Edit commands]]
 +
<br clear=all>
 +
You can also click on the "'''Discussion'''" tab to see the corresponding [[Wikipedia:Talk page|talk page]], which contains comments about the page from other Wikipedia users. Click on the "new section" tab to start a new section, or edit the page in the same way as an article page.
  
You may find it more convenient to copy and paste the text first into your favorite [[en:text editor|text editor]], edit and spell check it there, and then paste it back into your [[en:web browser|web browser]] to preview. This way, you can also keep a local backup copy of the pages you have edited. It also allows you to make changes offline, but before you submit your changes, ''please make sure nobody else has edited the page'' since you saved your local copy (by checking the [[Help:page history|page history]]), otherwise you may accidently revert someone else's edits. If someone ''has'' edited it since you copied the page, you'll have to merge their edits into your new version (you can find their specific edits by using the "[[Help:diff|diff]]" feature of the page history). These issues are handled automatically by the Mediawiki software if you edit the page in your web browser.
+
You should also remember to [[Wikipedia:Signatures|sign your messages]] on [[Wikipedia:Talk page|talk pages]] and some special-purpose [[Wikipedia:Project namespace|project pages]] with four tildes (<nowiki>~~~~</nowiki>), but you should '''not''' sign edits you make to regular articles. In [[Help:Page history|page history]], the [[MediaWiki]] software automatically keeps track of which user makes each change.
  
See also [[MediaWiki architecture]].
+
==Minor edits==
 +
{{further|[[Help:Minor edit|Minor edits]]}}
 +
A check to the "minor edit" box signifies that only superficial differences exist between the version with your edit and the previous version: typo corrections, formatting and presentational changes, rearranging of text without modifying content, etc. A ''minor edit'' is a version that the editor believes requires no review and could never be the subject of a dispute. The "minor edit" option is one of several [[Wikipedia:Why create an account%3F#New_editing_options|options]] available only to registered users.
  
== Dummy edit and null edit==
+
==Major edits==
 +
All editors are encouraged to [[Wikipedia:Be_bold|be bold]], but there are several things that a user can do to ensure that major edits are performed smoothly. Before engaging in a major edit, a user should consider discussing proposed changes on the article discussion/talk page. During the edit, if doing so over an extended period, the {{[[Template:Inuse|Inuse]]}} tag can reduce the likelihood of an edit conflict. Once the edit has been completed, the inclusion of an [[Help:Edit summary|edit summary]] will assist in documenting the changes. These steps will all help to ensure that major edits are well received by the Wikipedia community.
  
If the wikitext is not changed no edit will be recorded and the edit summary is discarded.
+
A major edit should be reviewed to confirm that it is consensual to all concerned editors. Therefore, any change that affects the ''meaning'' of an article is major (not minor), even if the edit is a single word.
  
A '''dummy edit''' is a change in wikitext that has no effect on the rendered page, such as changing the number of [[w:newline|newline]]s at some position from 0 to 1 or from 2 to 3 or conversely (changing from 1 to 2 makes a difference, see below). This allows an edit summary, and is useful for correcting a previous edit summary, or an accidental marking of a previous edit as "minor" (see below).
+
There are no necessary terms to which you have to agree when doing major edits, but the recommendations above have become best practice. If you do it your own way, the likelihood of your edits being reedited may be higher.
  
To refresh the cache of some item in the database a lesser kind of dummy edit, called a '''null edit''', may be sufficient: one that does not cause any change in the wikitext, and no entry in the history, in Recent Changes, etc.: this can be done by opening the edit window and saving; a section edit is sufficient. See also  [[Help:Category#A_category_tag_in_a_template.3B_caching_problem|A category tag in a template; caching problem]].
+
==Wiki markup==
 +
{{shortcut|WP:MARKUP}}
  
== Minor edits ==
+
The '''wiki markup''' is the syntax system you can use to format a Wikipedia page; please see [[Help:Editing|Editing]] for details on it, and [[Help:Wikitext examples|Wikitext examples]] for a longer list of the possibilities of Wikitext.
When editing a page, a [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Logging-in|logged-in]] user has the option of flagging the edit as a "minor edit". This feature is important, because users can choose to ''hide'' minor edits in their view of the [[MediaWiki User's Guide: The Recent Changes page | Recent Changes page]], to keep the volume of edits down to a manageable level.
 
  
When to use this is somewhat a matter of personal preference. The rule of thumb is that an edit of a page that consists of spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearranging of text should be flagged as a "minor edit".  A major edit is basically something that makes the entry worth revisiting for somebody who wants to watch the article rather closely. So any "real" change, even if it is a single word, should be flagged as a "major edit".  
+
===Links and URLs===
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
! What it looks like
 +
! What you type
 +
|- id="emph" valign="top"
 +
|
 +
London has [[public transport]].
  
The reason for not allowing a user who is not logged in to mark an edit as minor is that vandalism could then be marked as a minor edit, in which case it would stay unnoticed longer. This limitation is another reason to log in.
+
* A link to another Wiki article.
 +
* Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
 +
* Thus the link above is to the [[Uniform Resource Locator|URL]] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also [[Wikipedia:Canonicalization|Canonicalization]].
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
London has [[public transport]].
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
San Francisco also has [[public transport|public transportation]].
 +
 
 +
* Same target, different name.
 +
* The target ("piped") text must be placed '''first''', then the text to be displayed,  '''second'''.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
San Francisco also has
 +
[[public transport|public transportation]].
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
San Francisco also has
 +
[[public transport]]ation.
 +
 
 +
Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s,
 +
and [[tram]]s.
 +
 
 +
* Endings are blended into the link.
 +
* Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
 +
* Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki><nowiki></nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances.  Example: a [[micro-]]<nowiki>second</nowiki>.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
San Francisco also has
 +
[[public transport]]ation.
 +
 
 +
Examples include [[bus]]es,
 +
[[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.
 +
 
 +
a [[micro-]]<nowiki>second</nowiki>
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].
 +
 
 +
* A link to another [[Help:namespace|namespace]].
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
See the
 +
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
 
 +
|- id="link-to-section" valign="top"
 +
|
 +
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.
  
== The wiki markup ==
+
[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page.
In the left column of the table below, you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other
 
words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.
 
  
You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference. If you want to try out things without danger of doing any harm, you can do so in the [[Sandbox]].
+
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.
  
=== Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines ===
+
* The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation.  Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
+
* Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
<tr>
 
<th>What it looks like</th>
 
<th>What you type</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
Start your sections with header lines:
 
  
<!-- This is the original
+
|
== New section ==
+
<pre><nowiki>
=== Subsection ===
+
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]]
==== Sub-subsection ====
+
is a link to a section within another page.
-->
 
  
<!-- next set
+
[[#Links and URLs]] is a link
<h2> New section </h2>
+
to another section on the
<h3> Subsection </h3>
+
current page.
<h4> Sub-subsection </h4>
 
-->
 
  
<!-- This code prevents confusion in the section editing feature-->
+
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]]
<b><font style="font-size:120%"> New section </font></b>
+
is a piped link to a section within
 +
another page.</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
 +
[[kingdom (biology)|kingdom]].
  
<b><font style="font-size:110%"> Subsection</font></b>
+
Automatically hide namespace:
 +
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|Village pump]].
  
<b><font style="font-size:100%"> Sub-subsection</font></b>
+
Or both:
 +
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style|Manual of Style]]
  
</td>
+
But not:
<td><pre><nowiki>
+
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]
 +
* The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When [[Help:Show preview|previewing]] your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press '''Save''' and '''Edit''' again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page ([[#link-to-section|see previous entry]]).
 +
* See [[Help:Pipe trick|Pipe trick]] for details.
  
== New section ==
+
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
Automatically hide stuff
 +
in parentheses:
 +
[[kingdom (biology)|]].
  
=== Subsection ===
+
Automatically hide namespace:
 +
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].
  
==== Sub-subsection ====
+
Or both:
 +
[[Wikipedia:
 +
Manual of Style (headings)|]]
 +
 
 +
But not:
 +
[[Wikipedia:
 +
Manual of Style#Links|]]
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
[[en:newline|Newline]]:
 
  
A single
 
newline
 
has no
 
effect on the
 
layout.
 
  
But an empty line
+
|- valign="top"
starts a new paragraph.
+
|
 +
<!-- A village pump proposal was made so that users would be allowed to create the article shown here. Pages here would be articles requested for a long time. If you find someone has created the article, please look in requested articles and put one in its place -->
 +
[[National sarcasm society]] is a page
 +
that does not exist yet.
  
(<nowiki><p></nowiki> disables this paragraphing until <nowiki></p></nowiki> or the end  of the section)
+
* You can create it by clicking on the link.
 +
* To create a new page:
 +
*# Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
 +
*# Save that page.
 +
*# Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
 +
* For more information, see [[Wikipedia:Starting an article|starting an article]] and check out Wikipedia's [[Wikipedia:Naming conventions|naming conventions]].
 +
* Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
[[National sarcasm society]]
 +
is a page
 +
that does not exist yet.
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
  
(in Cologne Blue two newlines and a div tag give just one newline; in the order newline, div tag, newline, the result is two newlines)
+
[[Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] is a link to this page.
  
</td>
+
* [[Help:Self link|Self links]] appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
<td>
+
* Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Article titles|Article titles]].
 +
|
 
<pre><nowiki>
 
<pre><nowiki>
 +
[[Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
 +
is a link to this page.
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
The character '''tilde''' (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page.
 +
You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (<nowiki>~~~~</nowiki>)
 +
to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:
 +
: [[User:Patricia|Patricia Zhang]] 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
 +
Adding three tildes (<nowiki>~~~</nowiki>) will add just your user name:
 +
: [[User:Patricia|Patricia Zhang]]
 +
and adding five tildes (<nowiki>~~~~~</nowiki>) gives the date/time alone:
 +
: 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
  
A single
+
* The first two both provide a link to your [[Wikipedia:user page|user page]].
newline
+
|
has no
+
<pre><nowiki>
effect on the
+
The character '''tilde''' (~) is used
layout.
+
when adding a comment to a Talk page.
 +
You should sign your comment by
 +
appending four tildes (~~~~)
 +
to the comment so as to add your
 +
user name plus date/time:
 +
: ~~~~
 +
Adding three tildes (~~~) will add
 +
just your user name:
 +
: ~~~
 +
and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives
 +
the date/time alone:
 +
: ~~~~~
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Redirect|Redirect]] one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the ''first'' line of the article (such as at a page titled "[[USA]]").
 +
* It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to [[United States#History]] will redirect to the History section of the [[United States]] page, if it exists.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
#REDIRECT [[United States]]
  
But an empty line
+
#REDIRECT [[United States#History]] will redirect to the
starts a new paragraph.</nowiki></pre>
+
[[United States]] page, to the History
</td>
+
section, if it exists
</tr>
+
</nowiki></pre>
<tr valign="top"><td>You can break lines<br>
+
|- valign="top"
without starting a new paragraph.<p>
+
|
Sufficient as wikitext code is <nowiki><br></nowiki>, the XHTML code <nowiki><br /></nowiki> is not needed, the system produces this code.</p></td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>You can break lines<br>
 
without starting a new paragraph.</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
* Lists are easy to do:
 
** start every line with a star
 
*** more stars means deeper levels
 
*A newline
 
*in a list 
 
marks the end of the list.
 
*Of course
 
*you can
 
*start again.
 
  
</td>
+
* Link to a page on the same subject in another language by placing a link of the form: <nowiki>[[language code:Title]]</nowiki> in the wiki text of the article.
<td><pre><nowiki>* Lists are easy to do:
+
For example in the article on [[Plankton]], which is available on a lot of other wikis, the interlanguage links would look like so:
** start every line with a star
+
:<tt><nowiki>[[de:Plankton]] [[es:Plancton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]]</nowiki></tt>
*** more stars means deeper levels
+
* While it does not matter where you put these links while editing, it is recommended that these links be placed at the very end of the edit box.
*A newline
+
* These will not be visible in the main text of the article on which they are placed but appear as links in the extreme left margin column of Wikipedia page as part of a separate box under the 'toolbox' titled 'in other languages'. You can check out the links to the corresponding page in wikipedias of other languages for this Wikipedia MOS help page itself.
*in a list 
+
* Please see [[Help:Interlanguage links|Interlanguage links]] and the [[Wikipedia:Complete list of language wikis available|Complete list of language wikis available]].
marks the end of the list.
+
|
*Of course
+
<pre><nowiki>
*you can
+
</nowiki></pre>
*start again.
+
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
'''What links here''' and '''Related changes'''
 +
pages can be linked as:
 +
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
 +
and
 +
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
  
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
'''What links here''' and
 +
'''Related changes'''
 +
pages can be linked as:
 +
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/
 +
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
 +
and
 +
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/
 +
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
A user's '''Contributions''' page can be linked as:
 +
[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]
 +
or
 +
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
A user's '''Contributions''' page
 +
can be linked as:
 +
[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]
 +
or
 +
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
* To put an article in a [[Wikipedia:Categorization|category]], place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
[[Category:Character sets]]
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
* To ''link'' to a [[Wikipedia:Categorization|category]] page without putting the article into the category, use an initial colon (:) in the link.
<td>
+
|
# Numbered lists are also good
+
<pre><nowiki>
## very organized
+
[[:Category:Character sets]]
## easy to follow
+
</nowiki></pre>
#A newline
+
|- id="link-external" valign="top"
#in a list 
+
|
marks the end of the list.
+
Three ways to link to external (non-wiki) sources:
#New numbering starts
+
# Bare URL: http://www.wikipedia.com/ (bad style)
#with 1.
+
# Unnamed link: [http://www.wikipedia.com/] (only used within article body for footnotes)
 +
# Named link: [http://www.wikipedia.com Wikipedia]
  
</td>
+
:See [[meta:interwiki map]] for the list of shortcuts.
<td><pre><nowiki># Numbered lists are also good
+
 
## very organized
+
* Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a ''space'' (not a pipe) to separate the URL from the link text in the "named" version.
## easy to follow
+
* In the [[Uniform Resource Locator|URL]], all symbols must be among:<br/>'''A-Z a-z 0-9 . _ \ / ~ % - + & # ? ! = ( ) @'''
#A newline
+
* If a URL contains a character not in this list, it should be encoded by using a percent sign (%) followed by the [[hexadecimal|hex]] code of the character, which can be found in the table of [[ASCII#ASCII printable characters|ASCII printable characters]]. For example, the caret character (^) would be encoded in a URL as '''%5E'''.
#in a list 
+
* If the "named" version contains a closing square bracket "]", then you must use the [[HTML]] special character syntax, i.e. '''&amp;#93;''' otherwise the [[MediaWiki]] software will prematurely interpret this as the end of the external link.
marks the end of the list.
+
* There is a class that can be used to remove the arrow image from the external link. It is used in [[Template:Ref]] to stop the URL from expanding during printing. It should '''never''' be used in the main body of an article. However, there is an exception: wikilinks in Image markup. An example of the markup is as follows:
#New numbering starts
+
** Markup: <nowiki><span
#with 1.
+
class="plainlinksneverexpand">
 +
[http://www.sysinternals.com/
 +
ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]</span></nowiki>
 +
** Display: <span class="plainlinksneverexpand"> [http://www.sysinternals.com/ntw2k/freeware/winobj.shtml WinObj]</span>
 +
* See [[Wikipedia:External links|External links]] for style issues.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
Three ways to link to
 +
external (non-wiki) sources:
 +
# Bare URL:
 +
http://en.wikipedia.org/
 +
(bad style)
 +
# Unnamed link:
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/]
 +
(only used within article
 +
body for footnotes)
 +
# Named link:
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
Linking to other wikis:
<td>
+
# [[InterWiki]] link: [[Wiktionary:Hello]]
* You can even do mixed lists
+
# Interwiki link without prefix: [[Wiktionary:Hello|Hello]]
*# and nest them
+
# Named interwiki link: [[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of 'Hello']]
*#* like this<br>or have newlines<br>inside lists
+
 
</td>
+
* All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello
<td><pre><nowiki>* You can even do mixed lists
+
* Note that interwiki links use the ''internal'' link style.
*# and nest them
+
* See [[MetaWikiPedia:Interwiki_map]] for the list of shortcuts; if the site you want to link to is not on the list, use an external link ([[#link-external|see above]]).
*#* like this<br>or have newlines<br>inside lists</nowiki></pre>
+
* See also [[Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects|Wikimedia sister projects]].
</td>
+
 
</tr>
+
Linking to another language's wiktionary:
<tr>
+
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
<td>
+
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
* You can also
+
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|fr:bonjour]]
**break lines<br>inside lists<br>like this
+
 
</td>
+
* All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour
<td><pre><nowiki>* You can also
+
|
**break lines<br>inside lists<br>like this</nowiki></pre>
+
<pre><nowiki>
</td>
+
Linking to other wikis:
<tr>
+
# [[InterWiki]] link:
<td>
+
[[Wiktionary:Hello]]
; Definition list : list of definitions
+
# Interwiki link without prefix:
; item : the item's definition
+
[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]
</td>
+
# Named interwiki link:
<td><pre><nowiki>; Definition list : list of definitions
+
[[Wiktionary:Hello|
; item : the item's definition</nowiki></pre>
+
Wiktionary definition  
</td>
+
of 'Hello']]
</tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
Linking to another
<td>
+
language's wiktionary:
:A colon indents a line or paragraph.
+
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
+
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
* This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on [[Help:Talk page|Talk page]]s.
+
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
 
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
</tr>
+
|
<tr valign=top>
+
ISBN 012345678X
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>IF a line of plain text starts with a space THEN
 
  it will be formatted exactly
 
    as typed;
 
  in a fixed-width font;
 
  lines won't wrap;
 
ENDIF
 
this is useful for:
 
  * pasting preformatted text;
 
  * algorithm descriptions;
 
  * program source code
 
  * ASCII art;
 
  * chemical structures;</nowiki></pre>
 
  
WARNING If you make it wide,
+
ISBN 0-12-345678-X
you [[en:page widening|force the whole page to be wide]] and
 
hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.<br>
 
<center>(see also below)</center>
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki> IF a line of plain text starts with a space THEN
 
  it will be formatted exactly
 
    as typed;
 
  in a fixed-width font;
 
  lines won't wrap;
 
ENDIF
 
this is useful for:
 
  * pasting preformatted text;
 
  * algorithm descriptions;
 
  * program source code
 
  * ASCII horizontal dividing lineart;
 
  * chemical structures;</nowiki></pre></td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td><center>Centered text.</center>
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki><center>Centered text.</center></nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>A [[en:horizontal dividing line|horizontal dividing line]]: above
 
----
 
and below.
 
  
(However, in most cases a section header is more useful. The horizontal dividing line should only be used if what follows is logically part of the same section; otherwise that part would be hidden in the TOC.)</td>
+
* Link to books using their [[Wikipedia:ISBN|ISBN]]. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended.
<td><pre><nowiki>A horizontal dividing line: above
+
* ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
----
+
|
and below. </nowiki></pre>
+
<pre><nowiki>
</td>
+
ISBN 012345678X
</tr>
 
</table>
 
  
Summarizing the effect of a single newline: no effect in general, but it ends a list item or indented part; thus changing some text into a list item, or indenting it, is more cumbersome if it contains newlines, they have to be removed; see also [[w:Wikipedia:Don't use line breaks]].
+
ISBN 0-12-345678-X
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere
  
=== Links, URLs ===
+
* Link to [[Internet Engineering Task Force]] [[Request for Comments|Request for Comments (RFCs)]].
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
Text mentioning RFC 4321
 +
anywhere
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
Special [[WP:As of|As of]] links like {{As of|year}}
 +
needing future maintenance
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
Special [[WP:As of|As of]] links
 +
like {{As of|year}}
 +
needing future maintenance
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]
  
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
+
*To include links to non image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, [[#Images|see next section]].
<tr>
 
<th>What it looks like</th>
 
<th>What you type</th>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>Sue is reading the [[video policy]].
 
*First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
 
*Internally spaces are automatically represented as underscores (typing an underscore has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
 
Thus the [[link]] above is to <nowiki>http://meta.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_policy</nowiki>, which is the page with the name "Video policy".
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>Sue is reading the [[video policy]].</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr><td>
 
Link to a section on a page, e.g.
 
[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]]; when section linking does not work the link is treated as link to the page, i.e. to the top; this applies for:
 
*links to non-existent sections
 
*links in redirects
 
*interwiki links</td><td>
 
<pre><nowiki>[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]].</nowiki></pre></td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>Link target and link label are different: [[User:Larry Sanger|answers]].
 
  
(This is called a [[piped link]]).
+
Some uploaded sounds are listed at [[Commons:Sound]].
</td>
+
|
<td><pre><nowiki>Same target, different name:
+
<pre><nowiki>
[[User:Larry Sanger|answers]]</nowiki></pre>
+
[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top">
 
<td>Endings are blended into the link: [[official position]]s, [[gene]]s</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>Endings are blended
 
into the link: [[official position]]s, [[gene]]s</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top">
 
<td>
 
Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: [[kingdom (biology)|kingdom]].
 
<p>Automatically hide namespace: [[Wikipedia:Village pump|Village pump]].</p>
 
<p>The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature.</p>
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
 
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. </nowiki></pre>
 
<pre><nowiki>Automatically hide namespace:
 
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].</nowiki></pre>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>When adding a comment to a Talk page,
 
you should sign it. You can do this by
 
adding three tildes for your user name:
 
: [[User:Karl Wick|Karl Wick]]
 
or four for user name plus date/time:
 
: [[User:Karl Wick|Karl Wick]] 08:10 Oct 5, 2002 (UTC)
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>When adding a comment to a Talk page,
 
you should sign it. You can do this by
 
adding three tildes for your user name:
 
: ~~~
 
or four for user name plus date/time:
 
: ~~~~</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>[[The weather in London]] is a page that doesn't exist yet.
 
*You can create it by clicking on the link.
 
*To create a new page:
 
*#Create a link to it on some other page.
 
*#Save that page.
 
*#Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
 
*Have a look at [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Starting a new page|how to start a page]] guide and the naming conventions page for your project.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>[[The weather in London]] is a page
 
that doesn't exist yet.</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>
 
[[MediaWiki User's Guide: Using redirects|Redirect]] one article title to another by putting text like this in its first line.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>#REDIRECT [[United States]]</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>
 
A link to the page on the same subject in another language or, more generally, to a page on another wiki:
 
[[:fr:Wikipédia:Aide]].  
 
For more info see [[m:Help:Interwiki linking]].
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>[[fr:Wikipédia:Aide]], [[:fr:Wikipédia:Aide]]</nowiki></pre></td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>"What links here" and "Related changes" can be linked as:<br/>
 
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] and
 
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>
 
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/
 
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]] and
 
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/
 
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>External links: [http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia], [http://www.nupedia.com]
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>External links:
 
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia],
 
[http://www.nupedia.com]</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>Or just give the URL: http://www.nupedia.com.
 
*In the [[en:URL|URL]] all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%-+&amp;#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF. If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written %5E (to be looked up in [[en:ASCII|ASCII]]). A blank space can also be converted into an underscore.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>Or just give the URL:
 
http://www.nupedia.com.</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
To link to books, you can use [[en:ISBN|ISBN]] links.
 
ISBN 0123456789X See [[Help:ISBN links]]
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>ISBN 0123456789X</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
Link to [[w:Request for Comments|Request for Comments]]: RFC 123 (URL specified in [[mediawiki:Rfcurl]])
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>RFC 123</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
To include links to non-image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link.
 
<br/>[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre>
 
<nowiki>
 
[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign=top>
 
<td>Use links for dates, so everyone can set their own display order. Use [[Special:Preferences]] to change your own date display setting.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>[[July 20]], [[1969]] , [[20 July]] [[1969]]
 
and [[1969]]-[[07-20]]
 
</nowiki></pre>will all appear as [[20 July]] [[1969]] if you set your date display preference to 1 January 2001.
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
  
=== Images ===
+
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
Link directly to '''edit''' for an existing page, or apply other link attributes.
 +
* use <nowiki>{{fullurl:}}</nowiki> 
 +
* or use [[template:edit|<nowiki>{{template:edit}}</nowiki>]] which conceals the edit label for page printing
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>{{fullurl:page name|action=edit}}</nowiki></pre>
 +
|}
  
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
+
===Images===
<tr>
+
Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the [[Special:Upload|upload page]]. You can find the uploaded image on the [[Special:Imagelist|image list]].
<th>What it looks like</th>
+
 
<th>What you type</th>
+
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
</tr>
+
|-
<tr valign="top"><td>A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia]]
+
! What it looks like
* For many projects, only images that have been uploaded to the same project or [[commons:|the Commons]] can be used. To upload images, use the [[Special:Upload|upload page]]. You can find the uploaded image on the [[Special:Imagelist|image list]]
+
! What you type
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
<td><pre><nowiki>
+
|A picture:
A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]</nowiki></pre>
+
[[Image:wiki.png]]
or, with alternate text (''strongly'' encouraged) <!-- actually required in HTML4 -->
+
|<pre>A picture:
<pre><nowiki>[[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia  
+
<nowiki>[[Image:wiki.png]]</nowiki></pre>
- The Free Encyclopedia]] </nowiki>
+
 
</pre>
+
|- valign="top"
[[en:Web browser|Web browser]]s render alternate text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud. See [[en:Wikipedia:Alternate text for images|Alternate text for images]] for help on choosing alternate text.  See [[en:Wikipedia:Extended_image_syntax|Extended image syntax]] for more options.
+
|With alternative text:
</td>
+
[[Image:wiki.png|Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.]]
</tr>
+
|<pre>With alternative text:
<tr>
+
<nowiki>[[Image:wiki.png|Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.]]</nowiki></pre>
<td>
+
* Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is '''strongly''' encouraged. See [[Wikipedia:Alternative text for images|Alternative text for images]] for help on choosing it.
Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: [[:Image:Wiki.png]]
+
 
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
<td><pre><nowiki>
+
|Floating to the right side of the page using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[:Image:Wiki.png]]
+
[[Image:wiki.png|frame|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]<br clear=all>
 +
|<pre>Floating to the right side of the page
 +
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
 +
<nowiki>[[Image:wiki.png|frame|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]</nowiki></pre>
 +
* The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
 +
* The caption is also used as alternate text.
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|Floating to the right side of the page using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
 +
[[Image:wiki.png|thumb|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]<br clear=all>
 +
|<pre>Floating to the right side of the page
 +
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
 +
<nowiki>[[Image:wiki.png|thumb|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]</nowiki></pre>
 +
* The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
 +
* The caption is also used as alternate text.
 +
* An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|Floating to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption:
 +
[[Image:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
 +
|<pre>Floating to the right side of the page
 +
''without'' a caption:
 +
<nowiki>[[Image:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]</nowiki></pre>
 +
* The help topic on [[Wikipedia:Extended image syntax|extended image syntax]] explains more options.
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|A picture resized to 30 pixels...
 +
[[Image:wiki.png|30 px]]
 +
|<pre>A picture resized to 30 pixels...
 +
<nowiki>[[Image:wiki.png|30 px]]</nowiki></pre>
 +
* The help topic on [[Wikipedia:Extended image syntax|extended image syntax]] explains more options.
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|Linking directly to the description page of an image:
 +
[[:Image:wiki.png]]
 +
|<pre>Linking directly to the description page
 +
of an image:
 +
<nowiki>[[:Image:wiki.png]]</nowiki></pre>
 +
* Clicking on an image displayed on a page
 +
(such as any of the ones above)
 +
also leads to the description page
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
 +
[[:Image:wiki.png|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]
 +
|<pre>Linking directly to an image
 +
without displaying it:
 +
<nowiki>[[:media:wiki.png|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]</nowiki></pre>
 +
* To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|Using the [[Span and div|span and div tag]] to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
 +
|<pre><nowiki>Example:
 +
<div style="display:inline;
 +
width:220px; float:right;">
 +
Place images here </div></nowiki></pre>
 +
 
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):  
 +
|<pre><nowiki>Example: {| align=right
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Place images here
 +
|}
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
 
</tr>
 
  
<tr>
+
|}
<td>
+
 
To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
+
See the Wikipedia's [[Wikipedia:Image use policy|image use policy]] as a guideline used on Wikipedia.
<br/>[[media:Tornado.jpg|Image of a Tornado]]
+
 
</td>
+
For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the topic on [[Wikipedia:Extended image syntax|Extended image syntax]].
<td>
+
 
<pre>
+
===Headings===
<nowiki>
+
 
[[media:Tornado.jpg|Image of a Tornado]]
+
For a top-level heading, put it on a separate line surrounded by '=='. For example:
 +
 
 +
  == Introduction ==
 +
 
 +
Subheadings use '===', '====', and so on.
 +
 
 +
===Character formatting===
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
! What it looks like
 +
! What you type
 +
|- id="emph" valign="top"
 +
|
 +
''Italicized text''<br />'''Bold text'''<br />'''''Italicized & Bold text'''''
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
''Italicized text''
 +
'''Bold text'''
 +
'''''Italicized & Bold text'''''
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
</tr>
+
|
 +
[http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:SyntaxHighlight_GeSHi Syntax highlighting] for source code.
  
</table>
+
Computer code has a colored background
 +
and more stringent formatting. Suppose we
 +
want to define <code>int main()</code>:
 +
<source lang=cpp>#include <iostream.h>
 +
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
 +
    cout << "Hello World!";
 +
    return 0;
 +
}</source>
 +
|
 +
Computer code has a colored background
 +
and more stringent formatting. Suppose we
 +
want to define <code>int  main()</code>:
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
<source lang=cpp>#include <iostream.h>
 +
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
 +
    cout << "Hello World!";
 +
    return 0;
 +
}</source>
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign=top
 +
|
 +
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
 +
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.
 +
|
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
 +
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
 +
and <u>underline new material</u>.
  
=== Character formatting ===
+
You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
 +
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
 +
For backwards compatibility better combine this
 +
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
 +
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.
  
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0">
+
* When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
<tr>
+
* When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
<th>What it looks like</th>
+
|
<th>What you type</th>
+
<pre><nowiki>
</tr>
+
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
<tr valign="top"><td>
 
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''', '''''very strongly'''''.
 
*These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>''Emphasize'', '''strongly''',
 
'''''very strongly'''''.</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>
 
You can also write <i>italic</i> and <b>bold</b>
 
if the desired effect is a specific font style
 
rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulas:
 
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
 
*However, the difference between these two methods is not very important for graphical browsers, and many people choose to ignore it.
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<pre><nowiki>You can also write <i>italic</i>
 
and <b>bold</b> if the desired effect is a
 
specific font style rather than emphasis, as
 
in mathematical formulas:
 
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b></nowiki></pre><!-- that's not a mathematical formula, though -- sure it is, just because it's being applied to physics doesn't make it stop being mathematics -->
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign=top>
 
<td>A typewriter font for <tt>technical terms</tt>.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>A typewriter font for
 
<tt>technical terms</tt>.</nowiki></pre>
 
</td><!-- tt is really 'teletype', not 'technical term' -->
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign=top>
 
<td>You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>You can use <small>small text</small>
 
for captions.</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td>You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
 
 
and <u>underline new material</u>.
 
and <u>underline new material</u>.
</td>
+
 
<td><pre><nowiki>You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
+
You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
and <u>underline new material</u>.</nowiki></pre>
+
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
</td>
+
For backwards compatibility better combine this
</tr>
+
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
<tr valign="top">
+
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.
<td>
+
</nowiki></pre>
'''Umlauts and accents:''' (See [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Creating special characters]])<br/>
+
|- valign="top"
è é ê ë ì í<br/>
+
|
 +
'''Suppressing interpretation of markup:'''
 +
<br/>
 +
<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>
 +
* Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
 +
* Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
 +
* Does not escape HTML character references.
 +
* To escape HTML character references such as <tt>&amp;rarr;</tt> use <tt>&amp;amp;rarr;</tt>
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
&lt;nowiki>Link &amp;rarr; (''to'')
 +
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]&lt;/nowiki>
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
'''Commenting page source:'''
 +
<br/>
 +
''not shown when viewing page''
 +
* Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
 +
* Note that most comments should go on the appropriate [[Wikipedia:Talk page|Talk page]].
 +
|
 
<br/>
 
<br/>
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; <br/>
+
<pre><nowiki>
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; <br/>
+
&lt;!-- comment here -->
&Igrave; &Iacute;
+
</nowiki></pre>
&Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; <br/>
+
|-
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde;
+
|
&Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; <br/>
+
'''Extra spacing''' within text can best be achieved using the [[Template:Pad|pad]] template:
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig;
 
&agrave; &aacute; <br/>
 
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig;
 
&ccedil; <br/>
 
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;<br/>
 
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; <br/>
 
&oelig; &otilde;
 
&ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; <br/>
 
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>
 
  
è é ê ë ì í
+
Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.
 +
|
 +
<br />
 +
<pre><nowiki>Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
'''<span id="diacritics">Diacritical marks:</span>'''
 +
<br/>
 +
À Á Â Ã Ä Å <br/>
 +
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë <br/>
 +
Ì Í
 +
Î Ï Ñ Ò <br/>
 +
Ó Ô Õ
 +
Ö Ø Ù <br/>
 +
Ú Û Ü ß
 +
à á <br/>
 +
â ã ä å æ
 +
ç <br/>
 +
è é ê ë ì í<br/>
 +
î ï ñ ò ó ô <br/>
 +
œ õ
 +
ö ø ù ú <br/>
 +
û ü ÿ
  
&amp;Agrave; &amp;Aacute; &amp;Acirc; &amp;Atilde; &amp;Auml; &amp;Aring;
+
* See [[meta:Help:Special characters|special characters]].
&amp;AElig; &amp;Ccedil; &amp;Egrave; &amp;Eacute; &amp;Ecirc; &amp;Euml;
+
|
&amp;Igrave; &amp;Iacute; &amp;Icirc; &amp;Iuml; &amp;Ntilde; &amp;Ograve;
+
<br/>
&amp;Oacute; &amp;Ocirc; &amp;Otilde; &amp;Ouml; &amp;Oslash; &amp;Ugrave;
+
<pre><nowiki>
&amp;Uacute; &amp;Ucirc; &amp;Uuml; &amp;szlig; &amp;agrave; &amp;aacute;
+
&amp;Agrave; &amp;Aacute; &amp;Acirc; &amp;Atilde; &amp;Auml; &amp;Aring;  
&amp;acirc; &amp;atilde; &amp;auml; &amp;aring; &amp;aelig; &amp;ccedil;
+
&amp;AElig; &amp;Ccedil; &amp;Egrave; &amp;Eacute; &amp;Ecirc; &amp;Euml;  
 +
&amp;Igrave; &amp;Iacute; &amp;Icirc; &amp;Iuml; &amp;Ntilde; &amp;Ograve;  
 +
&amp;Oacute; &amp;Ocirc; &amp;Otilde; &amp;Ouml; &amp;Oslash; &amp;Ugrave;  
 +
&amp;Uacute; &amp;Ucirc; &amp;Uuml; &amp;szlig; &amp;agrave; &amp;aacute;  
 +
&amp;acirc; &amp;atilde; &amp;auml; &amp;aring; &amp;aelig; &amp;ccedil;  
 
&amp;egrave; &amp;eacute; &amp;ecirc; &amp;euml; &amp;igrave; &amp;iacute;
 
&amp;egrave; &amp;eacute; &amp;ecirc; &amp;euml; &amp;igrave; &amp;iacute;
&amp;icirc; &amp;iuml; &amp;ntilde; &amp;ograve; &amp;oacute; &amp;ocirc;
+
&amp;icirc; &amp;iuml; &amp;ntilde; &amp;ograve; &amp;oacute; &amp;ocirc;  
&amp;oelig; &amp;otilde; &amp;ouml; &amp;oslash; &amp;ugrave; &amp;uacute;
+
&amp;oelig; &amp;otilde; &amp;ouml; &amp;oslash; &amp;ugrave; &amp;uacute;  
&amp;ucirc; &amp;uuml; &amp;yuml;</nowiki></pre></td>
+
&amp;ucirc; &amp;uuml; &amp;yuml;
</tr>
+
</nowiki></pre>
<tr valign=top>
+
|- valign="top"
<td>
+
|
'''Punctuation:'''<br/>
+
'''Punctuation:'''
&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;<br/>
+
<br/>
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; - &ndash; &mdash;
+
¿ ¡ § ¶<br/>
</td>
+
† ‡ • &ndash; &mdash;<br/>
<td><pre><nowiki>
+
‹ › « »<br/>
&amp;iquest; &amp;iexcl; &amp;laquo; &amp;raquo; &amp;sect; &amp;para;
+
‘ ’ “ ”
&amp;dagger; &amp;Dagger; &amp;bull; - &amp;ndash; &amp;mdash;</nowiki></pre></td>
+
|
</tr>
+
<br/>
<tr valign="top">
+
<pre><nowiki>
<td>
+
&amp;iquest; &amp;iexcl; &amp;sect; &amp;para;
'''Commercial symbols:'''<br/>
+
&amp;dagger; &amp;Dagger; &amp;bull; &amp;ndash; &amp;mdash;
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; <br/>
+
&amp;lsaquo; &amp;rsaquo; &amp;laquo; &amp;raquo;
&pound; &curren;</td>
+
&amp;lsquo; &amp;rsquo; &amp;ldquo; &amp;rdquo;
<td><pre><nowiki>
+
</nowiki></pre>
&amp;trade; &amp;copy; &amp;reg; &amp;cent; &amp;euro; &amp;yen;
+
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
'''Commercial symbols:'''
 +
<br/>
 +
™ © ® ¢ € ¥<br/>
 +
£ ¤
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
&amp;trade; &amp;copy; &amp;reg; &amp;cent; &amp;euro; &amp;yen;  
 
&amp;pound; &amp;curren;
 
&amp;pound; &amp;curren;
</nowiki></pre></td>
+
</nowiki></pre>
</tr>
+
|- valign="top"
<tr valign="top" id="subscript"><td>Subscript: x<sub>2</sub><br/>
+
|
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&sup2;
+
'''Subscripts:'''
 +
<br/>
 +
x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
 +
<br/>
 +
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
 +
<br/>
 +
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉
  
*The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
+
'''Superscripts:'''
&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
+
<br/>
 +
x<sup>1</sup> x<sup >2</sup > x<sup >3</sup > or
 +
<br/>
 +
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
 +
<br/>
 +
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹
 +
 
 +
*The [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics)#Superscripts and subscripts|Manual of Style]] prefers the <nowiki>x<sub>1</sub></nowiki> format.
 +
*The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
 +
 
 +
ε<sub>0</sub> =
 
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
 
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.
+
/ J m.
 +
 
 +
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]
 +
|
 
<br/>
 
<br/>
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
 
<br/>
 
<br/>
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m²]]
+
x&amp;#8320; x&amp;#8321; x&amp;#8322; x&amp;#8323; x&amp;#8324;
</td>
+
<br/>
<td><pre><nowiki>Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
+
x&amp;#8325; x&amp;#8326; x&amp;#8327; x&amp;#8328; x&amp;#8329;
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&amp;sup2;
+
</nowiki></pre>
  
or in projects with the templates sub and sup:
+
<pre><nowiki>
 
+
x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
Subscript: x{{sub|2}}
+
<br/>
Superscript: x{{sup|2}}
+
x&amp;#8304; x&amp;sup1; x&amp;sup2; x&amp;sup3; x&amp;#8308;
 +
<br/>
 +
x&amp;#8309; x&amp;#8310; x&amp;#8311; x&amp;#8312; x&amp;#8313;
  
 
&amp;epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
 
&amp;epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
Line 582: Line 728:
 
C&amp;sup2; / J m.
 
C&amp;sup2; / J m.
  
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 ]]
+
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&amp;sup2;]]
</nowiki></pre></td>
+
</nowiki></pre>
</tr>
+
|- valign="top"
<tr valign="top"><td>'''Greek characters:''' <br/>
+
|
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; <br/>
+
'''Greek characters:'''
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; <br/>
+
<br/>
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho;  &sigma; &sigmaf; <br/>
+
α β γ δ ε ζ<br/>
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;<br/>
+
η θ ι κ λ μ ν<br/>
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi; <br/>
+
ξ ο π ρ σ ς<br/>
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;
+
τ υ φ χ ψ ω<br/>
</td>
+
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π<br/>
<td><pre><nowiki>
+
Σ Φ Ψ Ω
&amp;alpha; &amp;beta; &amp;gamma; &amp;delta; &amp;epsilon; &amp;zeta;
+
|
&amp;eta; &amp;theta; &amp;iota; &amp;kappa; &amp;lambda; &amp;mu; &amp;nu;
+
<br/>
&amp;xi; &amp;omicron; &amp;pi; &amp;rho; &amp;sigma; &amp;sigmaf;
+
<pre><nowiki>
 +
&amp;alpha; &amp;beta; &amp;gamma; &amp;delta; &amp;epsilon; &amp;zeta;  
 +
&amp;eta; &amp;theta; &amp;iota; &amp;kappa; &amp;lambda; &amp;mu; &amp;nu;  
 +
&amp;xi; &amp;omicron; &amp;pi; &amp;rho; &amp;sigma; &amp;sigmaf;
 
&amp;tau; &amp;upsilon; &amp;phi; &amp;chi; &amp;psi; &amp;omega;
 
&amp;tau; &amp;upsilon; &amp;phi; &amp;chi; &amp;psi; &amp;omega;
&amp;Gamma; &amp;Delta; &amp;Theta; &amp;Lambda; &amp;Xi; &amp;Pi;
+
&amp;Gamma; &amp;Delta; &amp;Theta; &amp;Lambda; &amp;Xi; &amp;Pi;  
 
&amp;Sigma; &amp;Phi; &amp;Psi; &amp;Omega;
 
&amp;Sigma; &amp;Phi; &amp;Psi; &amp;Omega;
</nowiki></pre></td>
+
</nowiki></pre>
</tr>
+
|- valign="top"
<tr valign="top">
+
|
<td>
+
'''Mathematical characters:'''
'''Math characters:''' <br/>
+
<br/>
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;<br/>
+
∫ ∑ ∏ √ &minus; ± ∞<br/>
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;<br/>
+
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥<br/>
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;<br/>
+
&times; · ÷ ∂ &prime; &Prime;<br/>
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;<br/>
+
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø<br/>
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;<br/>
+
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇<br/>
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;<br/>
+
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀<br/>
&rarr; &harr; &uarr;<br/>
+
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔<br/>
</td>
+
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔<br/>
<td valign="middle"><pre><nowiki>
+
* See also [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics|WikiProject Mathematics]] and [[TeX]].
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 
&amp;int; &amp;sum; &amp;prod; &amp;radic; &amp;minus; &amp;plusmn; &amp;infin;
 
&amp;int; &amp;sum; &amp;prod; &amp;radic; &amp;minus; &amp;plusmn; &amp;infin;
&amp;asymp; &amp;prop; &amp;equiv; &amp;ne; &amp;le; &amp;ge;  
+
&amp;asymp; &amp;prop; &amp;equiv; &amp;ne; &amp;le; &amp;ge;
 
&amp;times; &amp;middot; &amp;divide; &amp;part; &amp;prime; &amp;Prime;
 
&amp;times; &amp;middot; &amp;divide; &amp;part; &amp;prime; &amp;Prime;
 
&amp;nabla; &amp;permil; &amp;deg; &amp;there4; &amp;alefsym; &amp;oslash;
 
&amp;nabla; &amp;permil; &amp;deg; &amp;there4; &amp;alefsym; &amp;oslash;
 
&amp;isin; &amp;notin; &amp;cap; &amp;cup; &amp;sub; &amp;sup; &amp;sube; &amp;supe;
 
&amp;isin; &amp;notin; &amp;cap; &amp;cup; &amp;sub; &amp;sup; &amp;sube; &amp;supe;
&amp;not; &amp;and; &amp;or; &amp;exist; &amp;forall; &amp;rArr; &amp;hArr;
+
&amp;not; &amp;and; &amp;or; &amp;exist; &amp;forall;  
&amp;rarr; &amp;harr; &amp;uarr;
+
&amp;rArr; &amp;lArr; &amp;dArr; &amp;uArr; &amp;hArr;
</nowiki></pre></td>
+
&amp;rarr; &amp;darr; &amp;uarr; &amp;larr; &amp;harr;
</tr>
 
<tr valign="top"><td><i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0 true.
 
*To space things out, use non-breaking spaces - <tt>&amp;nbsp;</tt>.
 
*<tt>&amp;nbsp;</tt> also prevents line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas.
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>
 
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;ge;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;0 true.
 
</nowiki></pre></td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
'''Complicated formulae:'''<br/>
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 
* See [[MediaWiki User's Guide: Editing mathematical formulae:TeX markup|TeX markup]]
 
</td>
 
<td><pre><nowiki>
 
<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 
 
</nowiki></pre>
 
</nowiki></pre>
</td>
+
|- valign="top"
</tr>
+
|
<tr>
+
<math>\,\! \sin x + \ln y</math><br>
<td>
+
{{math|sin <VAR >x</VAR > + ln <VAR >y</VAR >}}
'''For comparison for the following examples:'''
 
  
arrow      &rarr;
+
<math>\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}</math><br>
 +
{{math|<B >x</B > {{=}} <B >0</B >}}
  
''italics''
+
Ordinary text should use [[#emph|wiki markup for emphasis]], and should not use <code>&lt;i&gt;</code> or <code>&lt;b&gt;</code>.  However, mathematical formulae often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis.  Complex formulae should use [[Help:Displaying a formula|<code>&lt;math&gt;</code> markup]], and simple formulae may use <code>&lt;math&gt;</code> or <code >{{tl|math}}</code > with <code>&lt;i&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;b&gt;</code> or <code><nowiki>''</nowiki></code> and <code><nowiki>'''</nowiki></code>.  Make sure to replace <CODE >=</CODE > with <CODE >{{tl|{{=}}}}</CODE >.  <!-- According to [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics#Italicization and bolding|WikiProject Mathematics]], wiki markup is preferred over HTML markup like <code>&lt;i&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;b&gt;</code>. -->
[[link]]
+
|
</td>
+
<pre><nowiki>
<td valign="bottom">
+
<math>\,\! \sin x + \ln y</math><br>
<pre><nowiki>arrow      &amp;rarr;
+
{{math|sin <VAR >x</VAR > + ln <VAR >y</VAR >}}
  
''italics''
+
<math>\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}</math><br>
[[link]]</nowiki></pre>
+
{{math|<B >x</B > {{=}} <B >0</B >}}
</td>
+
</nowiki></pre>
</tr>
+
|- valign="top"
<tr>
+
|
<td>
+
'''Spacing in simple math formulae:'''
'''Use &lt;nowiki> to suppress interpretation of wiki markup, but interpret character references and remove newlines and multiple spaces:'''
+
<br/>
 +
Obviously, {{math|<VAR >x</VAR ><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;≥&nbsp;0}} is true when {{math|<VAR >x</VAR >}} is a real number.
 +
* To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, you can use non-breaking spaces: <code>&amp;nbsp;</code>
 +
* However, even if you do not use non-breaking spaces, the <code >{{tl|math}}</code > template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <code >&lt;BR ></code > if you need an explicit line break inside a formula. 
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
Obviously, {{math|<VAR >x</VAR ><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;≥&nbsp;0}} is true when {{math|<VAR >x</VAR >}} is a real number.
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|
 +
'''Complicated formulae:'''
 +
<br/>
 +
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 +
* See [[Help:Displaying a formula]] for how to use <tt>&lt;math></tt>.
 +
* A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.
 +
|
 +
<br/>
 +
<pre><nowiki>
 +
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|}
 +
''(see also: [[Chess symbols in Unicode]])''
  
<nowiki>arrow      &rarr;
+
===No or limited formatting—showing exactly what is being typed===
  
''italics''
+
A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them—what you see, is what you get!
[[link]]
+
 
 +
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
 +
|-
 +
!What it looks like
 +
!What you type
 +
|-
 +
|'''&lt;nowiki&gt; tag:'''<br/>
 +
<nowiki>
 +
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 +
It reformats text by removing newlines    and multiple spaces.
 +
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;
 
</nowiki>
 
</nowiki>
</td>
+
|<pre><nowiki>
<td valign="bottom">
+
&lt;nowiki&gt;
<pre><nowiki><nowiki>arrow      &amp;rarr;
+
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 +
It reformats text by removing newlines
 +
and multiple spaces.
 +
It still interprets special
 +
characters: &amp;rarr;
 +
&lt;/nowiki&gt;
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|-
 +
|'''&lt;pre&gt; tag:'''</br>
 +
<pre>
 +
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 +
It also doesn't    reformat text.
 +
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;
 +
</pre>
 +
|<pre>&lt;pre&gt;<nowiki>
 +
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
 +
It also doesn't    reformat text.
 +
It still interprets special characters:
 +
&amp;rarr;
 +
</nowiki>&lt;/pre&gt;</pre>
 +
|-
 +
|'''Leading space:'''<br/>
 +
Leading spaces are another way
 +
to preserve formatting.
  
''italics''
 
[[link]]</nowiki></nowiki></pre>
 
  
</td>
+
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
</tr>
+
stops the text  from being reformatted.
<tr>
+
It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
<td>
+
special characters: →
'''Use &lt;pre> to suppress interpretation of wiki markup and keep newlines and multiple spaces, and get typewriter font, but interpret character references:'''
+
|<pre><nowiki>
 +
Leading spaces are another way
 +
to preserve formatting.
 +
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
 +
stops the text  from being reformatted.
 +
It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
 +
special characters: &amp;rarr;
 +
</nowiki></pre>
 +
|}
  
<pre>arrow      &rarr;
+
===Invisible text (comments)===
 +
{{main|Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Invisible comments}}
 +
It's uncommon, but on occasion acceptable, to add a hidden comment within the text of an article.  <!-- This is an example of text that won't normally be visible except in "edit" mode. --> The format is this:
 +
<nowiki><!-- This is an example of text that won't normally be visible except in "edit" mode. --></nowiki>
  
''italics''
+
=== Table of contents===
[[link]]
+
<!-- ==== Placement of the Table of Contents (TOC) ==== -->
</pre>
+
At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the table of contents (TOC) to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections).  Putting <nowiki>__TOC__</nowiki> anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header).  Putting <nowiki>__NOTOC__</nowiki> anywhere forces the TOC to disappear.  See also [[Wikipedia:Section#Compact_TOC|Compact TOC]] for alphabet and year headings.
</td>
+
<!--
<td valign="bottom">
+
THE TEXT BELOW IS COMMENTED OUT SINCE THE DESCRIBED TECHNIQUE
<pre><nowiki><pre>arrow      &amp;rarr;
+
DOESN'T WORK AFTER UPGRADING TO MEDIAWIKI 1.5
 +
 
 +
====Keeping headings out of the Table of Contents====
 +
If you want some subheadings to not appear in the Table of Contents, then make the following replacements.
 +
 
 +
Replace  <nowiki> == Header 2 == with <h2> Header 2 </h2> </nowiki>
 +
 
 +
Replace  <nowiki> === Header 3 === with <h3> Header 3 </h3> </nowiki>
 +
 
 +
And so forth.
  
''italics''
+
For example, notice that the following header has the same font as the other subheaders to this "Tables" section, but the following header does not appear in the Table of Contents for this page.
[[link]]</pre></nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
'''Use leading space on each line to keep newlines and multiple spaces, and get typewriter font:
 
arrow      &rarr;
 
  
''italics''
+
<h4> This header has the h4 font, but is NOT in the Table of Contents (actually, it is)</h4>
[[link]]
 
</pre>
 
</td>
 
<td valign="bottom">
 
<pre> <nowiki>arrow      &amp;rarr;
 
  
''italics''
+
This effect is obtained by the following line of code.
[[link]]</nowiki></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
'''Use typewriter font:'''
 
  
<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>
+
<code><nowiki><h4> This header has the h4 font, but is not in the Table of Contents </h4></nowiki></code>
  
<tt>''italics''</tt>
+
Note that when editing by section, this approach places the text between the tags in the subsequent section, not the previous section. To edit this text, click the edit link next to "Tables", not the one above.
<tt>[[link]]</tt>
+
-->
  
</td>
+
===Tables===
<td valign="bottom">
+
There are two ways to build tables:
<pre><nowiki><tt>arrow      &amp;rarr;</tt>
+
*in special Wiki-markup (see [[Help:Table|Table]])
 +
*with the usual HTML elements: &lt;table&gt;, &lt;tr&gt;, &lt;td&gt; or &lt;th&gt;.
  
<tt>''italics''</tt>
+
For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see [[Wikipedia:When to use tables|When to use tables]].
<tt>[[link]]</nowiki></tt></pre>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>
 
'''Show character references:'''
 
  
&amp;rarr;
+
===Variables===
</td>
+
''(See also [[mw:help:magic_words|Variable]])''
<td valign="bottom">
+
{| style="text-align:center"
&amp;amp;rarr;</pre>
+
|-
</td>
+
! Code
</tr>
+
! Effect
<tr>
+
|-
<td>
+
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTWEEK}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTWEEK}}
'''Commenting page source:'''<br/>
+
|-
''not shown in page''
+
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTDOW}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTDOW}}
* Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
+
|-
</td>
+
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTMONTH}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTMONTH}}
<td>
+
|-
<pre><nowiki><!-- comment here --></nowiki></pre>
+
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}</nowiki>
</td>
+
| {{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}
</tr>
+
|-
</table>
+
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTDAY}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTDAY}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTDAYNAME}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTDAYNAME}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTYEAR}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTYEAR}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{CURRENTTIME}}</nowiki> || {{CURRENTTIME}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{NUMBEROFUSERS}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{PAGENAME}}</nowiki> || {{PAGENAME}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{NAMESPACE}}</nowiki> || {{NAMESPACE}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{REVISIONID}}</nowiki> || {{REVISIONID}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{localurl:pagename}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{localurl:pagename}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{localurl:</nowiki>''Wikipedia:Sandbox''<nowiki>|action=edit}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{fullurl:pagename}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{fullurl:pagename}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{fullurl:pagename|</nowiki>''query_string''<nowiki>}}</nowiki>
 +
| {{fullurl:pagename|query_string}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{SERVER}}</nowiki> || {{SERVER}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:1}}</nowiki> || {{ns:1}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:2}}</nowiki> || {{ns:2}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:3}}</nowiki> || {{ns:3}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:4}}</nowiki> || {{ns:4}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:5}}</nowiki> || {{ns:5}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:6}}</nowiki> || {{ns:6}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:7}}</nowiki> || {{ns:7}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:8}}</nowiki> || {{ns:8}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:9}}</nowiki> || {{ns:9}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:10}}</nowiki> || {{ns:10}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:11}}</nowiki> || {{ns:11}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:12}}</nowiki> || {{ns:12}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:13}}</nowiki> || {{ns:13}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:14}}</nowiki> || {{ns:14}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{ns:15}}</nowiki> || {{ns:15}}
 +
|-
 +
| <nowiki>{{SITENAME}}</nowiki> || {{SITENAME}}
 +
|}
  
==Templates==
+
'''NUMBEROFARTICLES''' is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.
  
Some part of a page may correspond in the edit box to just a reference to another page, in the form <nowiki>{{</nowiki>''name''<nowiki>}}</nowiki>, referring to the page "Template:''name''" (or if the name starts with a namespace prefix, it refers to the page with that name; if it starts with a colon it refers to the page in the main namespace with that name without the colon). This is called a [[help:template|template]]. For changing that part of the page, edit that other page. Sometimes a separate edit link is provided for this purpose. A convenient way to put such a link in a template is with a template like [[m:Template:ed]]. Note that the change also affects other pages which use the same template.
+
'''CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN''' is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; '''CURRENTMONTHNAME''' is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.
  
==Page protection==
+
In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like <nowiki>{{grammar:case|word}}</nowiki> to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case.  For example, <nowiki>{{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}}</nowiki> means the same as <nowiki>{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}</nowiki>. <!-- Is there a reference for this, other than the source code (for example, phase3/languages/Lnaguage*.php) ? -->
  
In a few cases the link labeled "{{MediaWiki:Editthispage}}" is replaced by the text "{{MediaWiki:Protectedpage}}" (or equivalents in the language of the project). In that case the page cannot be edited.
+
===Templates===
 +
The [[MediaWiki]] software used by Wikipedia has support for [[help:template|templates]]. This means standardized text chunks (such as [[Wikipedia:Template messages|boilerplate text]]), can be inserted into articles. For example, typing {{tl|stub}} will appear as "''This article is a [[Wikipedia:Stub|stub]]. You can help Wikipedia by [[Wikipedia:Stub|expanding it]].''" when the page is saved. See [[Wikipedia:Template messages|Template messages]] for the complete list. Other commonly used templates are: {{tl|disambig}} for disambiguation pages and {{tl|sectstub}} like an article stub but for a section. There are many subject-specific stubs for example: {{tl|Geo-stub}}, {{tl|Hist-stub}}, and {{tl|Linux-stub}}. For a complete list of stubs see [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Stub sorting/Stub types|Stub types]].
  
==Position-independent wikitext==
+
==More information on editing wiki pages==
 +
You may also want to learn about:
 +
=== Getting started ===
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Starting an article|Starting an article]]
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Policies and guidelines|Policies and guidelines]]
  
Wikitext for which the result does not depend on the position in the wikitext page:
+
=== Helpful tips ===
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Contributing to Wikipedia|Contributing to Wikipedia]]
 +
* [[Wikipedia:FAQ/Editing|FAQ/Editing]]
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Cheatsheet|Cheatsheet]]
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Page size#If you have problems editing a long article|If you have problems editing a long article]]
  
*[[interlanguage link]]s (see also above) - the mutual order is preserved, but otherwise the positions within the page are immaterial
+
=== Naming and moving ===
*[[category]] specification - ditto
+
* [[Help:Moving a page|Moving a page]]
*<nowiki>__NOTOC__, __FORCETOC__</nowiki>, see [[Help:Section]]
+
* [[Wikipedia:Naming conventions|Naming conventions]]
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Namespace|Namespace]]
  
==Separating edits==
+
=== Style and layout ===
 +
*  [[Wikipedia:Layout|Layout]]
 +
*  [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style|Manual of Style]]
 +
*  [[Wikipedia:Annotated article|Annotated article]]
  
When moving or copying a piece of text within a page or from another page, and also making other edits, it is useful to separate these edits. This way the [[Help:Diff|diff function]] can be usefully applied for checking these other edits.
+
=== Tools ===
 +
[[Wikipedia:Text editor support|Text editor support]]
  
==Error message==
+
=== See also ===
 +
* [[WP:WikiProject|WikiProjects]], if you are writing an article about something that belongs to a group of objects, check here first!
  
If, due to server problems, a save command results in an error message, either the saving has failed, or just the confirmation. Check e.g. My Contributions to find out.
 
  
==See also==
+
{{Meta}}
  
*[[Help:Automatic conversion of wikitext]]
+
<noinclude>
*[[Help:Calculation]]
+
[[Category:Wikipedia how-to|How to edit a page]]
*[[Help:Editing toolbar]]
+
[[Category:Wikipedia basic information|How to edit a page]]
*[[Help:Html in wikitext]]
+
[[Category:Wikipedia editing|{{PAGENAME}}]]
*[[Help:Administration#Page_protection| Protecting pages]]
 
*[[Help:Starting a new page]]
 
*[[Help:Variable]]
 
*[[Parser testing]]
 
*[[en:UseModWiki|UseModWiki]] and [[en:Wikipedia:PHP script|Wikipedia:PHP script]].
 
*[[en:HTML tag|HTML tag]].
 
  
==External links==
+
<!-- Interlanguage links -->
*[http://home.earthlink.net/~awinkelried/keyboard_shortcuts.html Special characters in HTML]
+
</noinclude>
  
{{h:f|langs=|enname=Editing}}
+
[[ar:مساعدة:تحرير]]
 +
[[af:Wikipedia:Redigeringsinstruksies]]
 +
[[am:እርዳታ:የማዘጋጀት እርዳታ]]
 +
[[ang:Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
 +
[[as:ৱিকিপেদিয়া:সাহাৰ্য্য কেন্দ্ৰ]]
 +
[[az:Vikipediya:Məqalələrin redaktə qaydaları]]
 +
[[zh-min-nan:Help:Pian-chi̍p]]
 +
[[be-x-old:Вікіпэдыя:Як рэдагаваць існуючы артыкул]]
 +
[[bs:Wikipedia:Kako izmijeniti stranicu]]
 +
[[br:Skoazell:Penaos kemmañ ur bajenn]]
 +
[[bg:Уикипедия:Редактиране на страници]]
 +
[[ca:Ajuda:Com s'edita una pàgina]]
 +
[[cs:Nápověda:Jak editovat stránku]]
 +
[[de:Hilfe:Seite bearbeiten]]
 +
[[el:Βοήθεια:Πώς να επεξεργαστείτε μια σελίδα]]
 +
[[es:Ayuda:Cómo se edita una página]]
 +
[[eo:Helpo:Kiel redakti paĝon]]
 +
[[eu:Laguntza:Artikuluak nola aldatzen diren]]
 +
[[fr:Aide:Comment modifier une page]]
 +
[[ga:Vicipéid:Conas alt a chur in eagar]]
 +
[[hr:Wikipedija:Kako uređivati stranicu]]
 +
[[id:Wikipedia:Menyunting sebuah halaman]]
 +
[[ia:Wikipedia:Como formatar texto]]
 +
[[it:Aiuto:Modifica]]
 +
[[he:עזרה:עריכת דף]]
 +
[[la:Vicipaedia:De recensendo]]
 +
[[lt:Pagalba:Kaip redaguoti puslapį]]
 +
[[hu:Wikipédia:Hogyan szerkessz lapokat?]]
 +
[[ms:Wikipedia:Menyunting]]
 +
[[mn:Help:Арай өндөр төвшинд текст засварлах талаар]]
 +
[[nl:Help:Uitleg]]
 +
[[ja:Help:ページの編集]]
 +
[[no:Hjelp:Hvordan man redigerer en side]]
 +
[[nn:Hjelp:Endring]]
 +
[[ny:Wikipedia:Chithandizo cha Kulemba pa Wikipedia]]
 +
[[pl:Pomoc:Formatowanie tekstu]]
 +
[[ro:Ajutor:Cum modific o pagină]]
 +
[[ru:Википедия:Как править статьи]]
 +
[[simple:Help:How to change pages]]
 +
[[sk:Pomoc:Prehľad editácie stránok]]
 +
[[sl:Wikipedija:Urejanje strani]]
 +
[[sr:Помоћ:Уређивање]]
 +
[[su:Wikipedia:Cara ngédit kaca]]
 +
[[fi:Ohje:Kuinka sivuja muokataan]]
 +
[[sv:Wikipedia:Hur man redigerar en sida]]
 +
[[vi:Wikipedia:Sửa đổi]]
 +
[[tr:Yardım:Sayfa nasıl yazılır]]
 +
[[ur:صفحہ کس طرح ترميم کريں]]
 +
[[yi:װיקיפּעדיע:וויאזוי צו רעדאקטירן א בלאט]]
 +
[[zh-yue:Wikipedia:點樣編輯一頁]]
 +
[[zh:Wikipedia:如何编辑页面]]

Revision as of 20:22, 19 February 2009

Template:Semiprotected

Shortcuts:
WP:H2EAP
WP:HEP
WP:HOW
WP:EDIT
See also: Wikipedia:Introduction, Wikipedia:Manual of Style, Wikipedia:Tutorial, Help:Editing, and Wikipedia:Your first article

Wikipedia is a wiki, meaning that anyone can easily edit any unprotected page, and save those changes immediately to that page, making the alterations visible to every other reader. You do not even need to register to do this. After your first edit, you will be a Wikipedia editor!

Note: You can use the sandbox to experiment with page editing.

Introduction

Editing most Wikipedia pages is easy. Simply click on the "edit this page" tab at the top of a Wikipedia page (or on a section-edit link). This will bring you to a new page with a text box containing the editable text of the original page. If you add information to a page, please provide references, as unreferenced facts are subject to removal. When you are finished with an edit, you should write a short edit summary in the small field below the edit-box. You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in the legend. To see how the page looks with your edits, press the "Show preview" button. To see the differences between the page with your edits and the previous version of the page, press the "Show changes" button. If you're satisfied with what you see, be bold and press the "Save page" button. Your changes will immediately be visible to all Wikipedia users.


You can also click on the "Discussion" tab to see the corresponding talk page, which contains comments about the page from other Wikipedia users. Click on the "new section" tab to start a new section, or edit the page in the same way as an article page.

You should also remember to sign your messages on talk pages and some special-purpose project pages with four tildes (~~~~), but you should not sign edits you make to regular articles. In page history, the MediaWiki software automatically keeps track of which user makes each change.

Minor edits

Template:Further A check to the "minor edit" box signifies that only superficial differences exist between the version with your edit and the previous version: typo corrections, formatting and presentational changes, rearranging of text without modifying content, etc. A minor edit is a version that the editor believes requires no review and could never be the subject of a dispute. The "minor edit" option is one of several options available only to registered users.

Major edits

All editors are encouraged to be bold, but there are several things that a user can do to ensure that major edits are performed smoothly. Before engaging in a major edit, a user should consider discussing proposed changes on the article discussion/talk page. During the edit, if doing so over an extended period, the {{Inuse}} tag can reduce the likelihood of an edit conflict. Once the edit has been completed, the inclusion of an edit summary will assist in documenting the changes. These steps will all help to ensure that major edits are well received by the Wikipedia community.

A major edit should be reviewed to confirm that it is consensual to all concerned editors. Therefore, any change that affects the meaning of an article is major (not minor), even if the edit is a single word.

There are no necessary terms to which you have to agree when doing major edits, but the recommendations above have become best practice. If you do it your own way, the likelihood of your edits being reedited may be higher.

Wiki markup

Shortcut:
WP:MARKUP

The wiki markup is the syntax system you can use to format a Wikipedia page; please see Editing for details on it, and Wikitext examples for a longer list of the possibilities of Wikitext.

Links and URLs

What it looks like What you type

London has public transport.

  • A link to another Wiki article.
  • Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
  • Thus the link above is to the URL en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
London has [[public transport]].

San Francisco also has public transportation.

  • Same target, different name.
  • The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed, second.
San Francisco also has
[[public transport|public transportation]].

San Francisco also has public transportation.

Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

  • Endings are blended into the link.
  • Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
  • Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances. Example: a micro-second.
San Francisco also has
[[public transport]]ation.

Examples include [[bus]]es,
 [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

a [[micro-]]<nowiki>second
</nowiki>

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

See the 
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Village pump.

Or both: Manual of Style

But not: [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

  • The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page (see previous entry).
  • See Pipe trick for details.
Automatically hide stuff
in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]].

Automatically hide namespace: 
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].

Or both:
[[Wikipedia:
Manual of Style (headings)|]]

But not:
[[Wikipedia:
Manual of Style#Links|]]


National sarcasm society is a page that does not exist yet.

  • You can create it by clicking on the link.
  • To create a new page:
    1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
    2. Save that page.
    3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
  • For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
  • Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
[[National sarcasm society]]
is a page 
that does not exist yet.

Wikipedia:How to edit a page is a link to this page.

  • Self links appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
  • Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see Article titles.
[[Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
is a link to this page.

The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:

Patricia Zhang 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)

Adding three tildes (~~~) will add just your user name:

Patricia Zhang

and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:

13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
  • The first two both provide a link to your user page.
The character '''tilde''' (~) is used 
when adding a comment to a Talk page. 
You should sign your comment by 
appending four tildes (~~~~)
to the comment so as to add your 
user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
Adding three tildes (~~~) will add 
just your user name:
: ~~~
and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives 
the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~
  • Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
  • It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
#REDIRECT [[United States]]

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]] will redirect to the 
[[United States]] page, to the History 
section, if it exists 
  • Link to a page on the same subject in another language by placing a link of the form: [[language code:Title]] in the wiki text of the article.

For example in the article on Plankton, which is available on a lot of other wikis, the interlanguage links would look like so:

[[de:Plankton]] [[es:Plancton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]]
  • While it does not matter where you put these links while editing, it is recommended that these links be placed at the very end of the edit box.
  • These will not be visible in the main text of the article on which they are placed but appear as links in the extreme left margin column of Wikipedia page as part of a separate box under the 'toolbox' titled 'in other languages'. You can check out the links to the corresponding page in wikipedias of other languages for this Wikipedia MOS help page itself.
  • Please see Interlanguage links and the Complete list of language wikis available.

What links here and Related changes pages can be linked as: Special:Whatlinkshere/Wikipedia:How to edit a page and Special:Recentchangeslinked/Wikipedia:How to edit a page

'''What links here''' and
'''Related changes'''
pages can be linked as:
[[Special:Whatlinkshere/
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
and
[[Special:Recentchangeslinked/
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]

A user's Contributions page can be linked as: Special:Contributions/UserName or Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0

A user's '''Contributions''' page
can be linked as:
[[Special:Contributions/UserName]]
or
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]
  • To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
[[Category:Character sets]]
  • To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use an initial colon (:) in the link.
[[:Category:Character sets]]

Linking to other wikis:

  1. InterWiki link: Wiktionary:Hello
  2. Interwiki link without prefix: Hello
  3. Named interwiki link: Wiktionary definition of 'Hello'

Linking to another language's wiktionary:

  1. Wiktionary:fr:bonjour
  2. bonjour
  3. fr:bonjour
Linking to other wikis:
# [[InterWiki]] link:
[[Wiktionary:Hello]]
# Interwiki link without prefix:
[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]
# Named interwiki link:
[[Wiktionary:Hello|
Wiktionary definition 
of 'Hello']]

Linking to another
language's wiktionary:
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

  • Link to books using their ISBN. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended.
  • ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere

Text mentioning RFC 4321 
anywhere

Special As of links like As of yearTemplate:Main other needing future maintenance

Special [[WP:As of|As of]] links 
like {{As of|year}}
needing future maintenance

Sound

  • To include links to non image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.

Some uploaded sounds are listed at Commons:Sound.

[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]

Link directly to edit for an existing page, or apply other link attributes.

  • use {{fullurl:}}
  • or use {{template:edit}} which conceals the edit label for page printing
{{fullurl:page name|action=edit}}

Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What it looks like What you type
A picture:

File:Wiki.png

A picture: 
[[Image:wiki.png]]
With alternative text:

Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

With alternative text:
[[Image:wiki.png|Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.]]
  • Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
File:Wiki.png
Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Floating to the right side of the page 
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:wiki.png|frame|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
  • The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
  • The caption is also used as alternate text.
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
File:Wiki.png
Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Floating to the right side of the page 
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:wiki.png|thumb|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
  • The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
  • The caption is also used as alternate text.
  • An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption:
[[Image:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

30 px

A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[Image:wiki.png|30 px]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:

Image:wiki.png

Linking directly to the description page
of an image:
[[:Image:wiki.png]]
  • Clicking on an image displayed on a page

(such as any of the ones above) also leads to the description page

Linking directly to an image without displaying it:

Image of the jigsaw globe logo

Linking directly to an image
without displaying it:
[[:media:wiki.png|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]
  • To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
Using the span and div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
Example:
<div style="display:inline;
width:220px; float:right;">
Place images here </div>
Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):
Example: {| align=right
|-
| 
Place images here
|}

See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the topic on Extended image syntax.

Headings

For a top-level heading, put it on a separate line surrounded by '=='. For example:

  == Introduction ==

Subheadings use '===', '====', and so on.

Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Italicized text
Bold text
Italicized & Bold text

''Italicized text''
'''Bold text'''
'''''Italicized & Bold text'''''

Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

#include <iostream.h>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
    cout << "Hello World!";
    return 0;
}

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

<source lang=cpp>#include <iostream.h>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
    cout << "Hello World!";
    return 0;
}</source>

You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.

Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup. For backwards compatibility better combine this potentially ignored new logical with the old physical markup.

  • When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
  • When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
For backwards compatibility better combine this
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.

Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

  • Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
  • Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
  • Does not escape HTML character references.
  • To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;


<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'') 
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>

Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

  • Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
  • Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.


<!-- comment here -->

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template:

Mary   had a little lamb.


Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ


&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; 
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; 
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; 
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; 
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; 
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil; 
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; 
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; 
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”


&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤


&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; 
&pound; &curren;

Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

  • The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
  • The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

1 hectare = 1 E4 m²


x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
<br/>
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
<br/>
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;
x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
<br/>
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
<br/>
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]

Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω


&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; 
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; 
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi; 
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;

Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔


&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; 
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;

<math>\,\! \sin x + \ln y</math>
sin x + ln y

<math>\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}</math>
x Template:= 0

Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis, and should not use <i> or <b>. However, mathematical formulae often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulae should use <math> markup, and simple formulae may use <math> or {{math}} with <i> and <b> or '' and '''. Make sure to replace = with {{[[Template:Template:=|Template:=]]}}.

<math>\,\! \sin x + \ln y</math><br>
{{math|sin <VAR >x</VAR > + ln <VAR >y</VAR >}}

<math>\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}</math><br>
{{math|<B >x</B > {{=}} <B >0</B >}}

Spacing in simple math formulae:
Obviously, x2 ≥ 0 is true when x is a real number.

  • To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, you can use non-breaking spaces: &nbsp;.
  • However, even if you do not use non-breaking spaces, the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <BR > if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.


Obviously, {{math|<VAR >x</VAR ><sup>2</sup> ≥ 0}} is true when {{math|<VAR >x</VAR >}} is a real number.

Complicated formulae:

<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
  • See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use <math>.
  • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.


: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

(see also: Chess symbols in Unicode)

No or limited formatting—showing exactly what is being typed

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them—what you see, is what you get!

What it looks like What you type
<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines 
and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>
<pre> tag:</br>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →
<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters:
 &rarr;
</pre>
Leading space:

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.


Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted. 
It still interprets Wiki markup and
special characters: →
Leading spaces are another way 
to preserve formatting.
 Putting a space at the beginning of each line
 stops the text   from being reformatted. 
 It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
 special characters: &rarr;

Invisible text (comments)

It's uncommon, but on occasion acceptable, to add a hidden comment within the text of an article. The format is this:

<!-- This is an example of text that won't normally be visible except in "edit" mode. -->

Table of contents

At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the table of contents (TOC) to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear. See also Compact TOC for alphabet and year headings.

Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

  • in special Wiki-markup (see Table)
  • with the usual HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see When to use tables.

Variables

(See also Variable)

Code Effect
{{CURRENTWEEK}} 34
{{CURRENTDOW}} 3
{{CURRENTMONTH}} 08
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} August
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} August
{{CURRENTDAY}} 21
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Wednesday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2019
{{CURRENTTIME}} 03:35
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 196
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 106
{{PAGENAME}} Editing
{{NAMESPACE}} Help
{{REVISIONID}} 3198
{{localurl:pagename}} /Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandbox?action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} https://resiprocate.org/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} https://resiprocate.org/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}} https://resiprocate.org
{{ns:1}} Talk
{{ns:2}} User
{{ns:3}} User talk
{{ns:4}} reSIProcate
{{ns:5}} reSIProcate talk
{{ns:6}} File
{{ns:7}} File talk
{{ns:8}} MediaWiki
{{ns:9}} MediaWiki talk
{{ns:10}} Template
{{ns:11}} Template talk
{{ns:12}} Help
{{ns:13}} Help talk
{{ns:14}} Category
{{ns:15}} Category talk
{{SITENAME}} reSIProcate

NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

Templates

The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia has support for templates. This means standardized text chunks (such as boilerplate text), can be inserted into articles. For example, typing {{stub}} will appear as "This article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it." when the page is saved. See Template messages for the complete list. Other commonly used templates are: {{disambig}} for disambiguation pages and {{sectstub}} like an article stub but for a section. There are many subject-specific stubs for example: {{Geo-stub}}, {{Hist-stub}}, and {{Linux-stub}}. For a complete list of stubs see Stub types.

More information on editing wiki pages

You may also want to learn about:

Getting started

Helpful tips

Naming and moving

Style and layout

Tools

See also

  • WikiProjects, if you are writing an article about something that belongs to a group of objects, check here first!


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