# Help:Editing

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

reSIProcate is a wiki, meaning that anyone can easily edit any unprotected page, and save those changes immediately to that page, making the alterations visible to every other reader. You do not even need to register to do this. After your first edit, you will be a Wikipedia editor!

### Introduction

Edit commands

You can also click on the "Discussion" tab to see the corresponding talk page, which contains comments about the page from other Wikipedia users. Click on the "new section" tab to start a new section, or edit the page in the same way as an article page.

You should also remember to sign your messages on talk pages and some special-purpose project pages with four tildes (~~~~), but you should not sign edits you make to regular articles. In page history, the MediaWiki software automatically keeps track of which user makes each change.

## Minor edits

A check to the "minor edit" box signifies that only superficial differences exist between the version with your edit and the previous version: typo corrections, formatting and presentational changes, rearranging of text without modifying content, etc. A minor edit is a version that the editor believes requires no review and could never be the subject of a dispute. The "minor edit" option is one of several options available only to registered users.

What it looks like What you type

London has public transport.

• A link to another Wiki article.
• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link above is to the URL en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
London has [[public transport]].


San Francisco also has public transportation.

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed, second.
San Francisco also has
[[public transport|public transportation]].


San Francisco also has public transportation.

Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances. Example: a micro-second.
San Francisco also has
[[public transport]]ation.

Examples include [[bus]]es,
[[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

a [[micro-]]<nowiki>second
</nowiki>

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

See the
[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].


Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Village pump.

Or both: Manual of Style

• The server fills in the part after the pipe character (|) when you save the page. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page (see previous entry).
• See Pipe trick for details.
Automatically hide stuff
in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]].

Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]].

Or both:
[[Wikipedia:

But not:
[[Wikipedia:


National sarcasm society is a page that does not exist yet.

• You can create it by clicking on the link.
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
[[National sarcasm society]]
is a page
that does not exist yet.


• Self links appear as bold text when the article is viewed.
• Do not use this technique to make the article name bold in the first paragraph; see Article titles.
[[Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]


The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:

Patricia Zhang 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)

Patricia Zhang

and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:

13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
• The first two both provide a link to your user page.
The character '''tilde''' (~) is used
when adding a comment to a Talk page.
You should sign your comment by
appending four tildes (~~~~)
user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
: ~~~
and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives
the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
#REDIRECT [[United States]]

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]] will redirect to the
[[United States]] page, to the History
section, if it exists

• Link to a page on the same subject in another language by placing a link of the form: [[language code:Title]] in the wiki text of the article.

For example in the article on Plankton, which is available on a lot of other wikis, the interlanguage links would look like so:

[[de:Plankton]] [[es:Plancton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]]
• While it does not matter where you put these links while editing, it is recommended that these links be placed at the very end of the edit box.
• These will not be visible in the main text of the article on which they are placed but appear as links in the extreme left margin column of Wikipedia page as part of a separate box under the 'toolbox' titled 'in other languages'. You can check out the links to the corresponding page in wikipedias of other languages for this Wikipedia MOS help page itself.
• Please see Interlanguage links and the Complete list of language wikis available.

'''What links here''' and
'''Related changes'''
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]
and
Wikipedia:How to edit a page]]


A user's '''Contributions''' page
or
[[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]

• To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.
[[Category:Character sets]]

• To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use an initial colon (:) in the link.
[[:Category:Character sets]]


2. Interwiki link without prefix: Hello
3. Named interwiki link: Wiktionary definition of 'Hello'

Linking to other wikis:
[[Wiktionary:Hello]]
[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]
[[Wiktionary:Hello|
Wiktionary definition
of 'Hello']]

language's wiktionary:
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]
# [[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]


ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

• Link to books using their ISBN. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended.
• ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X


Text mentioning RFC 4321 anywhere

Text mentioning RFC 4321
anywhere

• To include links to non image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.

Some uploaded sounds are listed at Commons:Sound.

[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]


Link directly to edit for an existing page, or apply other link attributes.

• use {{fullurl:}}
• or use {{template:edit}} which conceals the edit label for page printing
{{fullurl:page name|action=edit}}

### Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What it looks like What you type
A picture:

A picture:
[[Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png]]
With alternative text:

With alternative text:
[[Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png|Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.]]
• Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png|frame|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png|thumb|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
• The caption is also used as alternate text.
• An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption:
[[Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png|30 px]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:
Linking directly to the description page
of an image:
[[:Image:Resiprocate-small-trans.png]]
• Clicking on an image displayed on a page

(such as any of the ones above) also leads to the description page

Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
Linking directly to an image
without displaying it:
[[:media:Resiprocate-small-trans.png|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]
Using the span and div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
Example:
<div style="display:inline;
width:220px; float:right;">
Place images here </div>
Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):
Example: {| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}


See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the topic on Extended image syntax.

For a top-level heading, put it on a separate line surrounded by '=='. For example:

  == Introduction ==


Subheadings use '===', '====', and so on.

### Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Italicized text
Bold text
Italicized & Bold text

''Italicized text''
'''Bold text'''
'''''Italicized & Bold text'''''


Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

#include <iostream.h>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

<source lang=cpp>#include <iostream.h>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}</source>


You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.


You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup. For backwards compatibility better combine this potentially ignored new logical with the old physical markup.

• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
For backwards compatibility better combine this
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (''to'') the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escape all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character references.
• To escape HTML character references such as &rarr; use &amp;rarr;

<nowiki>Link &rarr; (''to'')
the [[Wikipedia FAQ]]</nowiki>


Commenting page source:
not shown when viewing page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
• Note that most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page.

<!-- comment here -->


Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template:

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

• The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
<br/>
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
<br/>
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
<br/>
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
<br/>
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]


Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;


$\,\! \sin x + \ln y$
sin x + ln y

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$

Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis, and should not use <i> or <b>. However, mathematical formulae often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Complex formulae should use $ markup, and simple formulae may use [itex] or {{math}} with <i> and <b> or '' and '''. Make sure to replace = with {{[[Template:Template:=|Template:=]]}}. [itex]\,\! \sin x + \ln y$<br>
{{math|sin <VAR >x</VAR > + ln <VAR >y</VAR >}}

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$<br>
{{math|<B >x</B > {{=}} <B >0</B >}}


Spacing in simple math formulae:
Obviously, x2 ≥ 0 is true when x is a real number.

• To space things out without allowing line breaks to interrupt the formula, you can use non-breaking spaces: &nbsp;.
• However, even if you do not use non-breaking spaces, the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <BR > if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.

Obviously, {{math|<VAR >x</VAR ><sup>2</sup> ≥ 0}} is true when {{math|<VAR >x</VAR >}} is a real number.


Complicated formulae:

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
• See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


### No or limited formatting—showing exactly what is being typed

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them—what you see, is what you get!

What it looks like What you type
<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines
and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<pre> tag:
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →

<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters:
&rarr;
</pre>

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets Wiki markup and
special characters: →

Leading spaces are another way
to preserve formatting.
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
special characters: &rarr;


At the current status of the wiki markup language, having at least four headers on a page triggers the table of contents (TOC) to appear in front of the first header (or after introductory sections). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first header). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear. See also Compact TOC for alphabet and year headings.

### Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

• in special Wiki-markup (see Table)
• with the usual HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see When to use tables.

### Variables

Code Effect
{{CURRENTWEEK}} 49
{{CURRENTDOW}} 5
{{CURRENTMONTH}} 12
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} December
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} December
{{CURRENTDAY}} 6
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Friday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2019
{{CURRENTTIME}} 17:32
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 196
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 106
{{PAGENAME}} Editing
{{NAMESPACE}} Help
{{REVISIONID}} 3221
{{localurl:pagename}} /Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandbox?action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} http://resiprocate.org/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} http://resiprocate.org/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}} http://resiprocate.org
{{ns:1}} Talk
{{ns:2}} User
{{ns:3}} User talk
{{ns:4}} reSIProcate
{{ns:5}} reSIProcate talk
{{ns:6}} File
{{ns:7}} File talk
{{ns:8}} MediaWiki
{{ns:9}} MediaWiki talk
{{ns:10}} Template
{{ns:11}} Template talk
{{ns:12}} Help
{{ns:13}} Help talk
{{ns:14}} Category
{{ns:15}} Category talk
{{SITENAME}} reSIProcate

NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

### Templates

The MediaWiki software used by Wikipedia has support for templates. This means standardized text chunks (such as boilerplate text), can be inserted into articles. For example, typing {{stub}} will appear as "This article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it." when the page is saved. See Template messages for the complete list. Other commonly used templates are: {{disambig}} for disambiguation pages and {{sectstub}} like an article stub but for a section. There are many subject-specific stubs for example: {{Geo-stub}}, {{Hist-stub}}, and {{Linux-stub}}. For a complete list of stubs see Stub types.